Type of ResourceSummary posters (for learners), Instructional aids (for teachers)
Language FocusArabic Negation (أدوات النَّفي  في اللغة العربية)
Skill LevelA2, B1, B2 (CEFR Common European Framework)
Target AudienceArabic for speakers of other languages (primarily English) 
LanguageMSA (Modern Standard Arabic) 
Quotes & ContextSome of the content used to contextualise the language was taken from poetry, literature, the media, religious scriptures and general statements by influential personalities from the Arab world and beyond.  
ProjectOERabic (Open Educational Arabic Resources)  U. of Edinburgh OERabic.org  @OERabic
Creative Commons LicenceThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
PublishedSeptember 2020 (Version 01)

Credits & Acknowledgements

A very special thank you to the following colleagues who have kindly reviewed these resources for content and language accuracy:

  • Dr Muntasir Al-Hamad, Associate Professor of Arabic, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University
  • Dr. Yehia A. Mohamed, Associate Professor of Arabic, Georgetown U. in Qatar
  • Dr Rasha Soliman, Lecturer in Arabic Language & Linguistics, U. of Leeds
  • Mr. Salim Al Mandhari, Linguistics Specialist, Sultan Qaboos University
  • Dr. Mariam Aboelez, Teaching Fellow in Arabic Translation at the U. College London
  • Dr. Sara Altubuly, Lecturer in Arabic, Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education
  • Ms. Dimana Harvey, Alumni of U. of Edinburgh
  • Mr. Mahammed Bouabdallah, Lecturer in Arabic & Researcher in Arabic and Islamic Studies, U. of Westminster
  • Mr. Gerard Murphy, PG Student in Applied Linguistics, U. of Edinburgh, 
  • Miss. Rosie Maxton, Arabic Teaching Fellow, U. of Oxford

Summary Visuals

Resources Index

𝔹 – Beginner 𝕀 – Intermediate 𝔸 – Advanced

#Skill LevelNMNegation MarkersMeaning & UsageVisual Posters
1a𝔹 لاNegative Particle | لا (to respond to a question or simply say No!)no (as an answer to a question)⇑ Preview
1b𝔹لاProhibitive Lā | لا الناهية (Present Negation)do not... (Present Negation)⇑ Preview
1c𝔹لاNegating Lā | لا النافية (Present Negation)do not, does not (Present Negation)⇑ Preview
1d𝕀لاNo of Absolute Negation | لا النافية للجنسno, there is (no)⇑ Preview
1e𝕀ألاNegation Marker | ألاdon't you/they, doesn't he/she ⇑ Preview
1g𝔸ألاNegation Marker | ألاّ (أن + لا)not to⇑ Preview
1h𝔹بلاNegation Marker | بِلاwithout⇑ Preview
1j𝔸اللاNegation Marker | اللاnon-⇑ Preview
1k𝕀لا ... ولاNegation Particle | لا ... ولاneither ... nor...⇑ Preview
1l𝔸كلاNegation Particle | كَلاّnever, nay⇑ Preview
2a𝔹ما النافيةNegative Mā | ما النافية (Past Negation) did not, have not, was not⇑ Preview
2b𝔹ما النافيةNegative Mā | ما النافية (Present Negation)not to be (present)، is not، am not ⇑ Preview
2c𝔸ما النافيةNegative Mā | ما النافية (Nominal Sentence Negation)no⇑ Preview
3a𝕀ليسNegation Marker| The Verb لَيْسَnot to be (present)⇑ Preview
3b𝕀ليسNegation Marker| لَيْسَhe/it is not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3c𝕀لستNegation Marker| لَسْتُI am not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3d𝕀لسناNegation Marker| لَسْناWe are not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3e𝕀لستNegation Marker| لستَYou (masc. sing.) are not not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3f𝕀لستNegation Marker| لستِYou (fem. sing.) are not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3g𝕀لستمNegation Marker| لَسْتُمYou (masc. pl.) are not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3h𝕀ليستNegation Marker| لَيْسَتShe is not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3i𝕀ليسواNegation Marker| لَيْسُواthey (masc. pl.) are not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
3j𝕀لسنNegation Marker| لَسْنَThey (fem. pl.) are not: not to be (present) ⇑ Preview
4𝕀لنNegation Marker | لَنْwill not, never (future negation)⇑ Preview
5a𝕀لمNegation Particle | لَمْ (Past Negation)did not, was not, has not⇑ Preview
5b𝔸لم... وَ لمNegation Marker| لَمْ ... وَ لَمْ (Past Negation)neither ... nor... ⇑ Preview
6a𝔹غيرNegation Marker | غَيْرnot, non-, un-, dis-⇑ Preview
6b𝔸غيرNegation Marker | غَيْر (Exception)except⇑ Preview
6c𝕀بغيرNegation Marker| بِغَيْرwithout⇑ Preview
7a𝕀دونNegation Marker | دونwithout⇑ Preview
7b𝕀بدونNegation Marker | بِدونwithout⇑ Preview
8a𝕀عدمNegation Marker | عَدَمnon, un-, in-, lack of (a thing or concept)⇑ Preview
8b𝔸عديمNegation Marker | عَديمnon-، un-، in-، lack of (a thing or concept)⇑ Preview


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